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An IRONMAN Fuel & Hydration Guide

Icon of calendar04/10/2023

In the realm of endurance sports, the Ironman triathlon stands as one of the most gruelling and demanding challenges an athlete can undertake. Spanning a 2.4-mile swim, a 112-mile bike ride, and a marathon 26.2-mile run, it's a test not just of physical prowess but also of mental fortitude and strategic planning. While training regimes, gear, and mental preparation are often the focal points of discussion, there's an underlying factor that plays a pivotal role in determining success: nutrition.

The human body is akin to a complex machine, and like any machine, it requires the right kind of fuel to operate optimally. But what does "right" mean in the context of an event that can last anywhere from 8 to 18 hours? How does one ensure that the body doesn't run out of energy, or that muscles don't cramp up from dehydration or electrolyte imbalances? The answers lie at the intersection of sports science and nutrition.

Drawing from the latest research and insights from seasoned triathletes, this guide delves into the intricacies of fueling for an Ironman. We'll explore the physiological demands of the race, the role of different nutrients, and how strategic nutrition can enhance performance, delay fatigue, and ensure that when you cross that finish line, you do so with strength and vigour.

Carbohydrates and fats: The dual engines of endurance

Every movement and every breath we take during an Ironman race is powered by energy derived from the foods we consume. However, not all energy sources are created equal. Let's dive into the science behind the two primary fuels our body taps into during endurance events: carbohydrates and fats.

Carbohydrates: The body's preferred fuel
Carbohydrates, once ingested, are broken down into simpler sugars like glucose. This glucose either enters our bloodstream, providing immediate energy or is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. During high-intensity activities, our body prioritizes these glycogen stores. Why? The anaerobic breakdown of glycogen to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is rapid, meeting the immediate energy demands of strenuous activities. However, there's a catch: our glycogen reserves are finite. Once depleted, our performance can nosedive, leading to the dreaded phenomenon athletes refer to as "hitting the wall."

Fats: An Ironman's energy source
While carbohydrates are the sprinters in the energy race, fats are the marathon runners. Stored as triglycerides in adipose tissues, fats can provide a colossal amount of energy, making them invaluable for prolonged activities. When carbohydrate stores wane, the body shifts to oxidizing fats to produce ATP. This aerobic process, though slower than glycogen breakdown, releases more energy per gram of fat, ensuring a sustained energy output. The challenge lies in training the body to efficiently tap into these fat reserves, especially during the later stages of long-duration events.

Understanding the interplay between carbohydrates and fats during an Ironman is crucial. It informs our nutrition strategy, ensuring we have a steady energy supply, and can adapt as the race progresses and our body's demands shift.

Navigating the nutritional challenges of an Ironman

Endurance events like the Ironman are a true test of an athlete's mettle. But beyond physical and mental endurance, they also present unique nutritional challenges. Let's explore these challenges in-depth and understand how 02 During can be a game-changer.

The Dreaded "Bonk" and the role of carbohydrates:
During intense exertion, our muscles primarily rely on glycogen, a stored form of glucose, for energy. However, these reserves are finite. Once they're depleted, athletes experience a significant drop in blood glucose levels, leading to fatigue and a sharp decline in performance. 02 During is carefully formulated with a precise blend of carbohydrates. This ensures a steady release of glucose into the bloodstream. By consuming one drink mix evenly over the hour, and one gel halfway into the hour, athletes can maintain optimal blood glucose levels, effectively delaying the onset of the "bonk" and ensuring a consistent energy output throughout the race. 

Dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and 02 During:
As the race progresses and athletes sweat, they lose not just water but also vital electrolytes, with sodium being paramount. Sodium plays a crucial role in muscle contraction, nerve function, and maintaining fluid balance. An imbalance can lead to issues like muscle cramps and weakness. 02 During drink mix, enriched with sodium, serves a dual purpose. It hydrates the athlete while simultaneously replenishing lost electrolytes. This ensures that the body's fluid and electrolyte balance is maintained, reducing the risk of performance-hindering issues.

Gastrointestinal (GI) distress and nutrient timing:
Intense physical activity can divert blood flow from the digestive system to support muscles and other vital organs. This shift can sometimes lead to GI issues when nutrients are consumed. 02 During stands out in this regard. Formulated to be easily digestible and in a liquid form, it ensures rapid absorption. This provides muscles with the essential nutrients they need without overwhelming the digestive system. Athletes can thus fuel their race without the discomfort of GI disturbances.

In the challenging landscape of an Ironman, where every second counts, and every calorie matters, the 02 During stands out as an athlete's trusted companion. It addresses the core nutritional challenges faced during the race, ensuring that athletes can focus on their performance, and knowing their nutrition is in good hands.

The week leading up to the race: The science of carb-loading

Carb-loading is not just a pre-race ritual; it's a scientifically backed strategy to maximize muscle glycogen stores. Glycogen, the stored form of carbohydrates, is the primary fuel during high-intensity exercise. Asker Jeukendrup's research - one of the most renowned researchers in the field of sports nutrition - has shown that increasing carbohydrate intake to about 10-12g per kg of body weight can effectively saturate muscle glycogen stores. This ensures that athletes have a substantial energy reservoir for race day, allowing them to maintain high-intensity efforts for longer and delay the onset of fatigue.

The day before the race: Fine-tuning your fuel

The importance of the pre-race day cannot be overstated. It's the final opportunity to ensure that glycogen stores are at their peak. Jeukendrup's work emphasises the consumption of low-fibre, high-carbohydrate meals to prevent potential GI issues during the race. This ensures that the body has the maximum amount of readily available energy without the risk of digestive discomfort. Hydration is equally crucial. While water is essential, maintaining electrolyte balance is vital to prevent cramps and muscle spasms. Electrolytes, particularly sodium, play a pivotal role in muscle function and nerve transmission, making their replenishment a key aspect of pre-race nutrition.

Race-day morning: Setting the stage

The morning of the race is all about striking a balance. Athletes need to replenish the liver glycogen used up overnight without overloading the digestive system. Jeukendrup's research recommends a carbohydrate-rich meal 3-4 hours before the race, allowing ample time for digestion and conversion to glycogen. As the race-start approaches, a quick source of energy becomes crucial. Easily digestible carbohydrates, like those found in energy gels or sports drinks, can provide that immediate boost, ensuring athletes hit the starting line with optimal energy levels.

Race-day nutrition: Sustaining energy and performance

Understanding energy demands
An Ironman is a relentless test of endurance, and maintaining consistent energy levels is paramount. As the race unfolds, the body's primary energy source, muscle glycogen, begins to deplete. This is where strategic carbohydrate intake becomes essential. For prolonged activities lasting over 2.5 hours, an intake of up to 90g of carbohydrates per hour can significantly optimize performance. This not only fuels the muscles but also helps maintain blood glucose levels, crucial for brain function and coordination.

Priming the body with 01 Before: The pre-swim boost
The swim leg of an Ironman, while being the shortest in duration, sets the tone for the entire race. Starting strong, with optimal energy levels, can provide a significant psychological and physiological advantage. This is where 01 Before comes into play.

Why use 01 Before 30 minutes pre-swim?

  • Rapid energy availability: Consuming 01 Before 30 minutes prior to the swim ensures that its ingredients are rapidly digested and absorbed. One of the standout ingredients in 01 Before is the combination of natural caffeine and Guarana extract. Caffeine is known to increase the release of adrenaline, which in turn can elevate the availability and oxidation of blood glucose and fatty acids. This provides an immediate source of energy, ensuring athletes have an available pool of energy as they dive into the water.

  • Optimal blood glucose levels: The presence of L-Citrulline dl-Malate (2:1) in 01 Before plays a role in the urea cycle, which can aid in the removal of ammonia from the blood. Ammonia can interfere with cellular energy processes, so its removal can help maintain optimal blood glucose oxidation during exercise. This is crucial during the swim, as athletes heavily rely on blood glucose for energy due to limited access to external nutrition.

  • Mental alertness and focus: The brain, like our muscles, relies on glucose for optimal function. The BCAA (2:1:1) present in 01 Before can influence brain neurotransmitters, potentially reducing perceived effort and mental fatigue. This ensures that athletes are mentally sharp, focused, and ready to navigate the challenges of the swim leg.

  • Preventing early fatigue: The swim is just the beginning of a long day. Starting with depleted energy stores can lead to early fatigue. By priming the body with 01 Before, athletes can delay the onset of fatigue, ensuring consistent performance across all three disciplines.

In essence, 01 Before is not just about fueling the body; it's about setting the stage for success. Ensuring that athletes have the right energy levels as they dive into the water, provides a foundation upon which the rest of the race can be built.

Incorporating 02 During: drink mix and gel

02 During, available in both drink mix and gel forms, is meticulously formulated to address the energy demands of an Ironman. Each serving, whether it's the drink mix or the gel, provides 45g of carbohydrates in a 2:1:1.5 ratio and 343 mg of sodium.

For athletes targeting 90g of carbohydrates per hour:
  • The drink mix should be consumed evenly throughout the hour, providing a steady release of energy and maintaining hydration.
  • The gel, taken at the 30-minute mark, offers a concentrated energy boost, ensuring that carbohydrate intake remains consistent and optimal.

For high-performance athletes targeting 135g of carbohydrates per hour:
  • The drink mix should be consumed evenly throughout the hour, providing a steady release of energy and maintaining hydration.
  • The first gel is taken at the 30-minute mark, and the second gel should be consumed at the 60-minute mark.

This combination ensures that athletes receive a balanced and sustained energy supply, crucial for maintaining performance throughout the race.

Hydration and electrolyte balance
Beyond energy, hydration plays a pivotal role in race performance. As athletes sweat, they lose both water and essential electrolytes. The 02 During drink mix addresses this by providing not just carbohydrates for energy but also sodium to replace what's lost in sweat. Regular intake ensures that athletes remain hydrated and maintain electrolyte balance, reducing the risk of cramps and other performance-hindering issues.

Navigating Gastrointestinal (GI) challenges
Fueling during an Ironman comes with its set of challenges, notably managing gastrointestinal discomfort. The physical exertion, combined with reduced blood flow to the digestive system, can make nutrient intake challenging. However, 02 During, in both its drink mix and gel forms, is designed for easy digestion. By practising intake strategies during training, athletes can condition their systems to handle 02 During effectively during the race, ensuring consistent energy without the discomfort of GI disturbances.

Practical advice

30-45 minutes pre-swim: use 01 Before
15 minutes pre-swim: use 02 During: gel
T1: use 02 During: gel
Bike (90g/h): 1 x 02 During: drink mix + 1 x 02 During: gel per hour
Bike (135g/h): 1 x 02 During: drink mix + 2 x 02 During: gel per hour
T2: use 02 During: gel
Run (90g/h): 1 x 02 During: drink mix + 1 x 02 During: gel per hour
or: 2 x 02 During: gel per hour + drink water at stations

Post-race recovery: Rebuilding, replenishing, and restoring

The science of recovery
After crossing the finish line, the body is in a state of depletion and stress. Muscle fibres have been damaged, glycogen stores are nearly empty, and there's an accumulation of metabolic waste products. The primary goal of recovery is threefold:
  • Replenish energy stores: Glycogen, the stored form of carbohydrates in the muscles and liver, is the primary fuel source during an Ironman. Post-race, these stores are significantly depleted and need to be refilled. Consuming carbohydrates soon after the race can accelerate this replenishment. 
  • Repair muscle damage: The prolonged physical exertion of an Ironman causes microscopic damage to muscle fibres. Protein intake post-race supports the repair and rebuilding of these damaged fibres, aiding in muscle recovery and reducing the risk of injury.
  • Rehydrate and restore electrolyte balance: Sweating during the race leads to a loss of fluids and essential electrolytes. Rehydration post-race is crucial to restore fluid balance, aiding in nutrient transport and overall cellular function.

Optimising recovery with 03 After
03 After is designed to address the multifaceted needs of post-race recovery. It contains a rich and complex mix of both macro- and micro-nutrients, all perfectly weighted and balanced to support full-body recovery. Here's how 03 After aids in the recovery process:

  • Muscle recovery: 03 After focuses not just on muscle recovery but also on repairing tendons, ligaments, and joints. This comprehensive approach ensures that athletes recover holistically, reducing the risk of overuse injuries in the future.
  • Replenishing nutrient levels: Beyond muscle repair, 03 After provides nutrients that restore blood sugar levels, support immune function, and aid in overall cellular repair. This ensures that athletes recover fully, both internally and externally.
  • Hydration and electrolyte balance: While hydration is often associated with during-race nutrition, it's equally crucial post-race. 03 After provides the necessary electrolytes to restore balance, ensuring optimal cellular function and aiding in the transport of nutrients to where they're needed most.

In essence, recovery is not just about getting back to where you started; it's about setting the stage for future training and races. With the right recovery strategies and the support of 03 After, athletes can ensure they bounce back stronger, ready for the next challenge.

The ideal post-ironman meal: Nourishing the exhausted warrior
After the gruelling demands of an Ironman, the body craves nutrients to jumpstart the recovery process. While recovery drinks like 03 After play a crucial role because they offer a chance to get in all essential nutrients within the recovery window, a well-balanced meal can provide a broader spectrum of nutrients to aid in holistic recovery. Here's what an ideal post-Ironman meal should encompass:

1. Quality Carbohydrates
  • Why: To replenish depleted glycogen stores.
  • Science: Muscle glycogen is the primary fuel source during endurance events. Post-race, these stores are significantly depleted. Consuming carbohydrates soon after the race can accelerate glycogen synthesis.
  • Examples: Quinoa, brown rice, sweet potatoes, whole grain pasta, and fruits.

2. Lean Protein
  • Why: To aid in muscle repair and recovery.
  • Science: Prolonged physical activity causes microscopic damage to muscle fibres. Protein provides the necessary amino acids to repair and rebuild these fibres, aiding in muscle recovery.
  • Examples: Grilled chicken, legumes, fish, and eggs.

3. Healthy fats
  • Why: To support cellular function and reduce inflammation.
  • Science: Omega-3 fatty acids, a type of healthy fat, have been shown to reduce exercise-induced muscle soreness and inflammation.
  • Examples: Avocados, nuts, seeds, olive oil, and fatty fish like salmon.

4. Hydration
  • Why: To restore fluid balance and aid in nutrient transport.
  • Science: Sweating during the race leads to a loss of fluids. Rehydration post-race is crucial to restore fluid balance, aiding in nutrient transport and overall cellular function.
  • Examples: Water, herbal teas, and electrolyte-infused beverages.

5. Antioxidants and micronutrients
  • Why: To combat oxidative stress and support immune function.
  • Science: Prolonged exercise can increase oxidative stress. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals, reducing cellular damage. Additionally, micronutrients like vitamin C and zinc can support immune function, which might be suppressed post-race.
  • Examples: Berries, dark leafy greens, bell peppers, and nuts.

6. Electrolytes
  • Why: To restore electrolyte balance.
  • Science: Electrolytes, particularly sodium and potassium, are lost in sweat. Restoring their balance post-race is crucial for muscle function and preventing cramps.
  • Examples: Salted nuts, spinach, bananas, and electrolyte-infused beverages.

In essence, the post-IRONMAN meal should be a harmonious blend of macronutrients and micronutrients, tailored to address the specific demands placed on the body during the race. By consuming a well-balanced meal, athletes can ensure they provide their bodies with the best possible foundation for recovery.

If you need inspiration, here is a recipe for a grilled salmon quinoa bowl


Grilled salmon (lean protein and healthy fats)
  • 150g salmon fillet
  • 1 tbsp olive oil
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • A squeeze of lemon juice

Quinoa salad (quality carbohydrates and antioxidants)
  • 1 cup cooked quinoa
  • 1/2 cup diced bell peppers (red, yellow, and green for colour and variety)
  • 1/4 cup blueberries
  • 1/4 cup chopped spinach
  • A handful of chopped nuts (e.g., almonds or walnuts)
  • 1 tbsp olive oil
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Avocado slices (Healthy fats and electrolytes)
  • 1/2 ripe avocado, sliced

Banana & berry smoothie (Hydration, quality carbohydrates and antioxidants)
  • 1 ripe banana
  • 1/2 cup mixed berries (e.g., strawberries, blueberries, raspberries)
  • 1 cup water or herbal tea for hydration
  • A pinch of salt for electrolytes


For the grilled salmon
  1. Season the salmon fillet with salt, pepper, and a squeeze of lemon juice.
  2. Heat olive oil in a grill pan over medium heat.
  3. Place the salmon fillet skin-side down and grill for 4-5 minutes on each side or until fully cooked.
  4. Remove from heat and set aside. 

For the quinoa salad:
  1. In a mixing bowl, combine cooked quinoa, diced bell peppers, blueberries, chopped spinach, and nuts.
  2. Drizzle with olive oil, season with salt and pepper, and toss well. 

For the Banana & berry smoothie:
  1.  In a blender, combine banana, mixed berries, water or herbal tea, and a pinch of salt.
  2. Blend until smooth.

Assembling the bowl:
  1.  Place a generous serving of quinoa salad in a bowl. 
  2. Lay the grilled salmon fillet on top.
  3. Add avocado slices on the side.
  4. Serve with the banana and berry smoothie. 

Beyond the finish line: Long-term recovery strategies

The importance of active recovery
While the immediate hours post-race are crucial for kickstarting the recovery process, the days following an Ironman are equally important. Active recovery, which involves low-intensity, low-impact activities, can help increase blood flow, reduce muscle stiffness, and accelerate the healing process.
  • Examples: Gentle swimming, walking, or cycling at a relaxed pace. Yoga and stretching sessions can also be beneficial, helping to improve flexibility and alleviate muscle tightness.

Prioritise sleep
Sleep is the body's natural recovery mechanism. During deep sleep, the body undergoes various restorative processes, including muscle repair, hormone regulation, and memory consolidation. After the physical and mental exertion of an Ironman, ensuring adequate and quality sleep is paramount.
  • Tip: Aim for 8-10 hours of sleep in the nights following the race. Consider short naps during the day if needed.

Stay hydrated and continue nutrient intake
While immediate post-race nutrition is vital, maintaining hydration and nutrient intake in the subsequent days is essential. This helps in replenishing any remaining nutrient deficits and supports the body's repair processes.
  • Tip: Continue drinking water and electrolyte-infused beverages. Incorporate a balanced diet rich in proteins, healthy fats, and complex carbohydrates.

Listen to your body
Every athlete's recovery journey is unique. Some might feel ready to return to light training within a week, while others might need more extended rest. It's essential to listen to your body's signals. If you feel fatigued, sore, or mentally exhausted, give yourself more time to recover.
  • Tip: Consider consulting with a sports physiotherapist or a coach to get personalised advice on when and how to resume training.

Mental recovery
An Ironman is not just a physical challenge; it's a mental one too. Post-race, it's common to experience a range of emotions, from elation to post-race blues. Taking time to mentally unwind, reflect on the race, and celebrate your achievements is crucial.
  • Tip: Consider journaling your race experience, discussing it with fellow athletes, or even seeking the support of a sports psychologist if needed.

Recovery is a journey, not a destination. By adopting a holistic approach, encompassing both physical and mental strategies, athletes can ensure they bounce back stronger, ready for their next challenge. 

Off-season: Planning and periodisation: 

After the immediate recovery from an Ironman, athletes enter a phase where the focus shifts from recovery to building a foundation for future training cycles. This period, often termed the "transition phase" or "off-season," is crucial for long-term athletic development.

Benefits of the transition phase:
  • Physical restoration: This phase allows the body to heal fully from the cumulative wear and tear of months of rigorous training and the race itself.
  • Mental refreshment: It provides a mental break, reducing the risk of burnout and reigniting the passion for the sport.
  • Skill development: Athletes can focus on technique, form, and other foundational skills without the pressure of upcoming races.

Periodisation: Structuring the off-season

Periodization involves structuring training into specific cycles, each with a particular focus. In the context of the post-Ironman phase:
  • Restorative cycle (1-4 weeks post-Ironman):
    • Focus: Active recovery, rest, and rejuvenation.
    • Activities: Gentle aerobic exercises, flexibility training, and recreational activities outside of triathlon.
  • Foundational cycle (5-12 weeks post-Ironman):
    • Focus: Building aerobic endurance, strength, and technique.
    • Activities: Longer, low-intensity workouts, strength training sessions, and technique drills.
  • Skill and strength cycle (13-20 weeks post-Ironman):
    • Focus: Enhancing specific skills, increasing muscular strength, and addressing any imbalances.
    • Activities: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), plyometrics, and sport-specific drills.

Setting goals for the next season
While the off-season is a time for recovery and rejuvenation, it's also an opportunity to reflect on the past season, analyze performance, and set goals for the upcoming season. Whether it's improving swim technique, increasing cycling power, or enhancing running efficiency, having clear objectives can guide training and keep motivation high.

Incorporating Cross-Training
The off-season is an excellent time to incorporate other forms of exercise. Cross-training can prevent overuse injuries, enhance overall fitness, and break the monotony of routine training.
  • Examples: Mountain biking, trail running, rock climbing, or even team sports like soccer or basketball.

In conclusion, the weeks and months following an Ironman are not just about recovery but also about reflection, planning, and laying the groundwork for future success. By adopting a structured approach, athletes can ensure they're not only recovering but also evolving, setting the stage for even greater achievements in the seasons to come.

The power of community and support in endurance sports

Endurance sports, while often perceived as individual endeavours, are deeply rooted in community and camaraderie. From the cheering spectators on race day to the fellow athletes who share the grind of early morning workouts, the community plays a pivotal role in an athlete's journey.

Why community matters

  1. Shared experience: Training for events like an Ironman is a unique experience, filled with highs and lows. Being part of a community means you're never alone in these moments. Sharing challenges, successes, and stories can be incredibly motivating.
  2. Knowledge exchange: Whether it's advice on nutrition, training techniques, or gear recommendations, the collective wisdom of a community can be invaluable. Learning from others' experiences can save time, and effort, and even prevent potential mistakes.
  3. Accountability: Having training partners or being part of a group can keep you accountable. It's harder to skip a workout when you know someone is waiting for you.
  4. Emotional support: The mental challenges of endurance sports can be as demanding as the physical ones. A supportive community can encourage during tough times and celebrate with you during the triumphs.

Join the Victus High-Performance Team:

For those athletes who have experienced the power of community and wish to play a more active role in fostering it, we invite you to join the Victus HPT Programme. As ambassadors, you'll not only represent the brand but also become pillars of support and inspiration for others in the endurance sports community.

By joining, you'll have the opportunity to:
  • Share your journey and inspire others.
  • Test and provide feedback on new Victus products.
  • Get a discount on all products, packs and automatic deliveries. 
  • Engage in community events, workshops, and training sessions.
  • Collaborate with fellow ambassadors and be part of a global network of endurance athletes.

If you're passionate about endurance sports, believe in the values and vision of Victus, and wish to make a positive impact in the community, we'd love to hear from you. Reach out to Daan at [email protected] to express your interest and learn more about the programme.

Scientific references and sources

  1. Glycogen Replenishment Post-Exercise
    • Burke, L. M., van Loon, L. J., & Hawley, J. A. (2017). Postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(5), 1055-1067.
  2. Protein Intake for Muscle Recovery
    • Moore, D. R., Camera, D. M., Areta, J. L., & Hawley, J. A. (2014). Beyond muscle hypertrophy: why dietary protein is important for endurance athletes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39(9), 987-997.
  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammation
    • Tartibian, B., Maleki, B. H., & Abbasi, A. (2009). The effects of ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids on perceived pain and external symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness in untrained men. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 19(2), 115-119.
  4. Hydration and Athletic Performance
    • Sawka, M. N., Burke, L. M., Eichner, E. R., Maughan, R. J., Montain, S. J., & Stachenfeld, N. S. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(2), 377-390.
  5. Antioxidants and Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress
    • Pingitore, A., Lima, G. P., Mastorci, F., Quinones, A., Iervasi, G., & Vassalle, C. (2015). Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports. Nutrition, 31(7-8), 916-922.
  6. Carbohydrate Intake During Endurance Events
    • Jeukendrup, A. E. (2014). A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Medicine, 44(1), 25-33.
  7. Electrolyte Loss and Replacement During Exercise
    • Maughan, R. J., & Leiper, J. B. (1995). Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 71(4), 311-319.
  8. Mental Resilience in Endurance Sports
    • McCormick, A., Meijen, C., & Marcora, S. (2015). Psychological determinants of whole-body endurance performance. Sports Medicine, 45(7), 997-1015.
  9. Active Recovery and Performance
    • Bieuzen, F., Bleakley, C. M., & Costello, J. T. (2013). Contrast water therapy and exercise-induced muscle damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS One, 8(4), e62356.
  10. Importance of Sleep in Recovery
    • Halson, S. L. (2014). Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine, 44(1), 13-23.
  11. Role of Active Recovery in Lactic Acid Removal
    • Dupuy, O., Douzi, W., Theurot, D., Bosquet, L., & Dugué, B. (2018). An evidence-based approach for choosing post-exercise recovery techniques to reduce markers of muscle damage, soreness, fatigue, and inflammation: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 403.
  12. Mental Stress and Endurance Performance
    • Marcora, S. M., Staiano, W., & Manning, V. (2009). Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(3), 857-864.
  13. Nutritional Strategies for Endurance Athletes
    • Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501-528.
  14. Role of Community in Sports Performance
    • Rees, T., Hardy, L., Güllich, A., Abernethy, B., Côté, J., Woodman, T., ... & Warr, C. (2016). The Great British Medalists Project: A review of current knowledge on the development of the world’s best sporting talent. Sports Medicine, 46(8), 1041-1058.
  15. Cross-Training Benefits for Endurance Athletes
    • Millet, G. P., Jaouen, B., Borrani, F., & Candau, R. (2002). Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(8), 1351-1359.

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